What does the research say about Alpha Lipoic Acid? Here are some abstracts from various research journals from the scientific and medical communities:
Lipoic acid prevents hypertension, hyperglycemia, and the increase in heart mitochondrial superoxide production.
Am J Hypertens 2003 Mar;16(3):173-9
Midaoui AE, Elimadi A, Wu L, Haddad PS, de Champlain J.
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, Canada
The present study was designed to investigate whether the effects of dietary supplementation with alpha-lipoic acid could prevent the increase in mitochondrial superoxide production in the heart as well as the enhanced formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) that are associated with the development of hypertension and insulin resistance in chronically glucose-fed rats.Sprague Dawley rats were either given or not given a 10% D-glucose solution to drink during 4 weeks, combined either with a normal chow diet or with alpha-lipoic acid supplemented diet. The oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring the heart mitochondrial superoxide production using the lucigenin chemiluminescence method. The formation of AGE was also assessed in plasma and aorta.Chronic administration of glucose resulted in a 29% increase in blood pressure, 30% increase in glycemia, 286% increase in insulinemia, and 408% increase in insulin resistance index. Chronic glucose feeding also resulted in a 22% greater mitochondrial superoxide anion production in heart and in an increase of 63% in AGE content in aorta. Increases in blood pressure, aorta AGE content and heart mitochondrial superoxide production were prevented in the rats fed glucose supplemented with lipoic acid. The simultaneous treatment with lipoic acid also attenuated the rise in insulin levels as well as in insulin resistance in the glucose fed rats.These findings demonstrate that alpha-lipoic acid supplementation prevents development of hypertension and hyperglycemia, presumably through its antioxidative properties, as reflected by prevention of an increase in heart mitochondrial superoxide anion production and in AGE formation in the aorta of chronically glucose treated rats.
PMID: 12620694 [PubMed - in process]
Reactive oxygen species, antioxidant mechanisms and serum cytokine levels in cancer patients: impact of an antioxidant treatment.
Cell Mol Med 2002 Oct-Dec;6(4):570-82
Mantovani G, Maccio A, Madeddu C, Mura L, Massa E, Gramignano G, Lusso MR, Murgia V, Camboni P, Ferreli L.
Cattedra e divisione di Oncologia Medica, Policlinico Universitario di Cagliari, Presidio di Monserrato, Strada statale 554, bivio Sestu, 09042 Monserrato (Cagliari), Italy. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE: So far, it is not well established whether oxidative stress found in cancer patients results from an increased production of oxidants in the body or from a failure of physiological antioxidant systems. To further investigate this question we have assessed the blood levels of reactive oxygen species as a marker of free radicals producing oxidative stress and the most relevant of the physiological body enzymes counteracting reactive oxygen species, namely glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and IL-2 were also investigated. All these parameters were studied in relation to the clinically most important index of disease progression, namely Performance Status (ECOG PS). We also tested the reducing ability of different antioxidant agents on reactive oxygen species levels by measuring the increase in glutathione peroxidase activity, and the reduction of serum levels of IL-6 and TNF. DESIGN, SETTING AND SUBJECTS: We carried out an open non randomized study on 28 advanced stage cancer patients (stage III, 10.7%, and stage IV, 89.3%) with tumours at different (8) sites: all were hospitalized in the Medical Oncology Dept, University of Cagliari Interventions. The patients were divided into 5 groups and a different antioxidant treatment was administered to each group. The selected antioxidants were: alpha lipoic acid 200 mg/day orally, N-acetylcysteine 1800 mg/day i.v. or carboxycysteine-lysine salt 2.7 g/day orally, amifostine 375 mg/day i.v., reduced glutathione 600 mg/day i.v., vitamin A 30000 IU/day orally plus vitamin E 70 mg/day orally plus Vitamin C 500 mg/day orally. The antioxidant treatment was administered for 10 consecutive days. RESULTS: Our results show that all but one of the antioxidants tested were effective in reducing reactive oxygen species levels and 2 of them (cysteine-containing compounds and amifostine) had the additional effect of increasing glutathione peroxidase activity. Comprehensively, the "antioxidant treatment" was found to have an effect both on reactive oxygen species levels and glutathione peroxidase activity. The antioxidant treatment also reduced serum levels of IL-6 and TNF. Patients in both ECOG PS 0-1 and ECOG PS 2-3 responded to antioxidant treatment.
PMID: 12611641 [PubMed - in process]
The sensory symptoms of diabetic polyneuropathy are improved with alpha-lipoic acid: the SYDNEY trial.
Diabetes Care 2003 Mar;26(3):770-6
Ametov AS, Barinov A, Dyck PJ, Hermann R, Kozlova N, Litchy WJ, Low PA, Nehrdich D, Novosadova M, O'Brien PC, Reljanovic M, Samigullin R, Schuette K, Strokov I, Tritschler HJ, Wessel K, Yakhno N, Ziegler D; SYDNEY Trial Study Group.
Russian Medical Academy for Advanced Studies, Moscow, Russia.
OBJECTIVE: Because alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), a potent antioxidant, prevents or improves nerve conduction attributes, endoneurial blood flow, and nerve (Na(+) K(+) ATPase activity in experimental diabetes and in humans and may improve positive neuropathic sensory symptoms, in this report we further assess the safety and efficacy of ALA on the Total Symptom Score (TSS), a measure of positive neuropathic sensory symptoms. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Metabolically stable diabetic patients with symptomatic (stage 2) diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN) were randomized to a parallel, double-blind study of ALA (600 mg) (n = 60) or placebo (n = 60) infused daily intravenously for 5 days/week for 14 treatments. The primary end point was change of the sum score of daily assessments of severity and duration of TSS. Secondary end points were sum scores of neuropathy signs (NIS), symptoms (NSC), attributes of nerve conduction, quantitative sensation tests (QSTs), and an autonomic test. RESULTS: At randomization, the groups were not significantly different by the criteria of metabolic control or neuropathic end points. After 14 treatments, the TSS of the ALA group had improved from baseline by an average of 5.7 points and the placebo group by an average of 1.8 points (P < 0.001). Statistically significant improvement from baseline of the ALA, as compared with the placebo group, was also found for each item of the TSS (lancinating and burning pain, asleep numbness and prickling), NIS, one attribute of nerve conduction, and global assessment of efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous racemic ALA, a potent antioxidant, rapidly and to a significant and meaningful degree, improved such positive neuropathic sensory symptoms as pain and several other neuropathic end points. This improvement of symptoms was attributed to improved nerve pathophysiology, not to increased nerve fiber degeneration. Because of its safety profile and its effect on positive neuropathic sensory symptoms and other neuropathic end points, this drug appears to be a useful ancillary treatment for the symptoms of diabetic polyneuropathy.
PMID: 12610036 [PubMed - in process]
Characterization of Retinal Leukostasis and Hemodynamics in Insulin Resistance and Diabetes: Role of Oxidants and Protein Kinase-C Activation.
Diabetes 2003 Mar;52(3):829-837
Abiko T, Abiko A, Clermont AC, Shoelson B, Horio N, Takahashi J, Adamis AP, King GL, Bursell SE.
Research Division, Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. Beetham Eye Institute, Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
Increases in leukostasis/monocyte adhesion to the capillary endothelium (leukostasis) and decreases in retinal blood flow may be causally associated and are implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. In this study, we demonstrate that increases in leukostasis are observed in insulin-resistant states without diabetes, whereas decreases in retinal blood flow require diabetes and hyperglycemia. Microimpaction studies using beads mimicking retinal capillary obstruction by leukocytes did not affect retinal blood flow. In diabetic rats, treatment with the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid normalized the amount of leukostasis but not retinal blood flow. In contrast, treatment with D-alpha-tocopherol and protein kinase-C beta-isoform inhibition (LY333531) prevented the increases in leukostasis and decreases in retinal blood flow in diabetic rats. Serum hydroxyperoxide, a marker of oxidative stress, was increased in diabetic rats, but normalized by treatment with antioxidants alpha-lipoic acid and D-alpha-tocopherol and, surprisingly, PKC beta-isoform inhibition. These findings suggest that leukostasis is associated with endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress but is not related to retinal blood flow and is not sufficient to cause diabetic-like retinopathy. Moreover, treatment with PKC beta inhibition is effective to normalize diabetes or hyperglycemia-induced PKC beta-isoform activation and oxidative stress.
PMID: 12606527 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
The antioxidants alpha-lipoic acid and N-acetylcysteine reverse memory impairment and brain oxidative stress in aged SAMP8 mice.
J Neurochem 2003 Mar;84(5):1173-83
Farr SA, Poon HF, Dogrukol-Ak D, Drake J, Banks WA, Eyerman E, Butterfield DA, Morley JE.
Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center (GRECC), VA Medical Center (151/JC), 915 N. Grand Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63109, USA. email@example.com
Oxidative stress may play a crucial role in age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we examined the ability of two antioxidants, alpha-lipoic acid (LA) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), to reverse the cognitive deficits found in the SAMP8 mouse. By 12 months of age, this strain develops elevated levels of Abeta and severe deficits in learning and memory. We found that 12-month-old SAMP8 mice, in comparison with 4-month-old mice, had increased levels of protein carbonyls (an index of protein oxidation), increased TBARS (an index of lipid peroxidation) and a decrease in the weakly immobilized/strongly immobilized (W/S) ratio of the protein-specific spin label MAL-6 (an index of oxidation-induced conformational changes in synaptosomal membrane proteins). Chronic administration of either LA or NAC improved cognition of 12-month-old SAMP8 mice in both the T-maze footshock avoidance paradigm and the lever press appetitive task without inducing non-specific effects on motor activity, motivation to avoid shock, or body weight. These effects probably occurred directly within the brain, as NAC crossed the blood-brain barrier and accumulated in the brain. Furthermore, treatment of 12-month-old SAMP8 mice with LA reversed all three indexes of oxidative stress. These results support the hypothesis that oxidative stress can lead to cognitive dysfunction and provide evidence for a therapeutic role for antioxidants.
PMID: 12603840 [PubMed - in process]
Botanicals and dietary supplements in diabetic peripheral neuropathy.
J Am Board Fam Pract 2003 Jan-Feb;16(1):47-57
Halat KM, Dennehy CE.
California College of Podiatric Medicine, San Francisco, Calif, USA.
BACKGROUND: Many persons use botanicals and dietary supplements for chronic conditions that do not respond to traditional Western medications. Tricyclic antidepressants, a common treatment option for diabetic neuropathy, can have many side effects and are a poor choice in certain populations (eg, the elderly). As such, patients might turn to botanicals and dietary supplements, not realizing that these products are not well regulated. METHODS: This article reviews botanicals and dietary supplements that have been involved in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for diabetic neuropathy. We searched MEDLINE for English-language literature dating from 1966 to April 2001 using the following subject headings: (1) diabetes and botanical, herb, and supplement, (2) neuropathy and botanical, herb, and supplement, and (3) diabetic neuropathy and botanical, herb, and supplement. RESULTS: Our search found agents that might improve symptoms of neuropathy (eg, evening primrose oil, alpha-lipoic acid, capsaicin) without affecting glucose control. Botanicals and dietary supplements involved in only one RCT or associated with little clinical benefit were reviewed in brief. CONCLUSIONS: Evening primrose oil, alpha-lipoic acid, and capsaicin have received the greatest attention for their use in diabetic neuropathy, but further studies are needed to confirm their efficacy. Patients using these products need to be informed of potential drug interactions and side effects.
PMID: 12583650 [PubMed - in process]
Alpha lipoic acid changes iron uptake and storage in lens epithelial cells.
Exp Eye Res 2003 Feb;76(2):241-8
Goralska M, Dackor R, Holley B, McGahan MC.
Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences, North Carolina State University, 4700 Hillsborough Street, Raleigh, NC 27606, USA.
Alpha lipoic acid (LA) is a cofactor in mitochondrial dehydrogenase complexes. Previous studies have shown that when administered exogenously LA has antioxidant properties, which include free radical scavenging, metal chelation and regeneration of other antioxidants. The cells convert LA into dihydroplipoic acid (DHLA), which in the presence of iron can act as a prooxidant. In vitro DHLA reduces Fe(+3) to Fe(+2) and removes iron from ferritin, increasing the risk of Fe catalyzed free radical formation. In the present study we examined the in vivo effects of lipoic acid treatment on Fe metabolism in cultured lens epithelial cells, and found that LA decreases Fe uptake from transferrin, increases Fe deposition into ferritin and increases the concentration of this protein. When administered together with ascorbic acid, lipoic acid changes the characteristic heavy to light chain ratio of ferritin makeup. The decreased Fe uptake and increased storage diminishes the size of the cytosolic highly reactive Fe pool (LIP). These changes are associated with increased cell resistance to H(2)O(2) challenge. Therefore, LA may reduce the risk of Fe induced oxidative damage and also might be useful as a treatment of Fe overload. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd.
PMID: 12565812 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Effects of certain micronutrients and melatonin on plasma lipid, lipid peroxidation, and homocysteine levels in rats.
Arch Med Res 2002 Nov-Dec;33(6):515-9
Baydas G, Yilmaz O, Celik S, Yasar A, Gursu MF.
Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies suggest an association between high intake of antioxidant vitamins and fish oil and reduced risk of coronary heart disease. Hyperhomocysteinemia has also been identified as an independent risk factor for arteriosclerosis. In this paper, we aimed to evaluate the effects of vitamin E, vitamin C, vitamin C 6 palmitate (VC6P), lipoic acid, fish oil, and melatonin supplementation on lipid peroxidation, plasma lipid, and homocysteine (Hcy) levels in rats. METHODS: Animals were divided into seven groups: one was used as control and each remaining group was supplemented with one substance for 6 weeks. All substances were dissolved in olive oil and injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with the exception of vitamin C, which was dissolved in drinking water. Plasma Hcy, lipid peroxidation, and lipids were determined. RESULTS: Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels decreased significantly in melatonin (p <0.01), lipoic acid (p <0.01), and vitamin E (p <0.05) groups. On the other hand, supplementation with vitamin C and VC6OP lowered MDA levels moderately but not significantly (p >0.05). Fish oil supplementation caused a slight but insignificant increase in plasma MDA levels (p >0.05). Plasma lipid levels in animals treated with melatonin, vitamin E, vitamin C, lipoic acid, and fish oil were significantly lower than those of controls; however, treatment of rats with VC6P has no significant effect on plasma lipid level. Melatonin and fish oil administration significantly lowered plasma Hcy levels, whereas VC6P elevated its level. There was no significant effect of vitamin E, vitamin C, and lipoic acid on levels of plasma Hcy. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that supplementation with antioxidants appears to be hypolipidemic. In addition to these beneficial effects, administration of melatonin and fish oil deserves careful consideration as a measure to lower plasma Hcy levels and reduce risk of cardiovascular diseases.
PMID: 12505094 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
The effectiveness of treatments of diabetic autonomic neuropathy is not the same in autonomic nerves supplying different organs.
Diabetes 2003 Jan;52(1):157-64
Shotton HR, Clarke S, Lincoln J.
Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Autonomic Neuroscience Institute, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London, U.K.
The aim of the study was to investigate antioxidant (alpha-lipoic acid [LA]) and gamma-linolenic acid treatments in the prevention of changes in autonomic nerves induced in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Autonomic nerves supplying the heart, penis, and gut were examined using immunohistochemical and biochemical techniques. LA and gamma-linolenic acid (present in evening primrose oil [EPO]) were administered as dietary supplements ( approximately 80 and 200 mg. kg(-1). day(-1), respectively). LA treatment prevented the diabetes-induced decrease of norepinephrine (NA) in the heart and of type I nitric oxide synthase (NOS-I) expression in erectile tissue of the penis but failed to prevent diabetes-induced changes in NA-, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-, or calcitonin gene-related peptide-containing nerves supplying the ileum. LA partially prevented and EPO totally prevented the increase in NOS-I activity induced by diabetes in the ileum. EPO treatment failed to prevent any other diabetes-induced changes in the heart, penis, or ileum. These results demonstrate that, whereas LA treatment is more effective than EPO in preventing diabetes-induced changes in autonomic nerves, the effectiveness of LA treatment varies with the target organ studied. Diabetes-induced changes in nerves supplying the ileum are more resistant to treatment than those of the heart and penis.
PMID: 12502507 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Mercury toxicity and antioxidants: Part 1: role of glutathione and alpha-lipoic acid in the treatment of mercury toxicity.
Altern Med Rev 2002 Dec;7(6):456-71
Mercury exposure is the second-most common cause of toxic metal poisoning. Public health concern over mercury exposure, due to contamination of fish with methylmercury and the elemental mercury content of dental amalgams, has long been a topic of political and medical debate. Although the toxicology of mercury is complex, there is evidence for antioxidant protection in the prevention of neurological and renal damage caused by mercury toxicity. Alpha-lipoic acid, a coenzyme of pyruvate and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, has been used in Germany as an antioxidant and approved treatment for diabetic polyneuropathy for 40 years. Research has attempted to identify the role of antioxidants, glutathione and alpha-lipoic acid specifically, in both mitigation of heavy metal toxicity and direct chelation of heavy metals. This review of the literature will assess the role of glutathione and alpha-lipoic acid in the treatment of mercury toxicity.
PMID: 12495372 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Alpha lipoic acid inhibits T cell migration into the spinal cord and suppresses and treats experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
J Neuroimmunol 2002 Oct;131(1-2):104-14
Marracci GH, Jones RE, McKeon GP, Bourdette DN.
Department of Neurology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97201, USA.
Oxidative injury may be important to the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). We tested the antioxidant alpha lipoic acid (ALA) in an experimental murine model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). ALA was administered to SJL mice 7 days after immunization with proteolipid protein (PLP) 139-151 peptide. Mice that received 5-100 mg/kg/day of ALA had dose-dependent reductions in their 10-Day Cumulative Disease Scores (10-Day CDS) by 23-100%. Minimal inflammation, demyelination and axonal loss occurred in the spinal cords (SC) of ALA-suppressed mice, and there was a marked reduction in CD3+ T cells and CD11b+ monocyte/macrophage cells within the SC. Mice treated with ALA (100 mg/kg/day) commencing on the first day of clinical EAE had a significant reduction in 10-Day CDS. SC of ALA-treated mice had reduced demyelination and axonal loss and a rapid reduction in CD3+ T cells. In vitro, ALA and its reduced form, dihydrolipoic acid, inhibited the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in a dose-dependent fashion. ALA is highly effective at suppressing and treating EAE and does so by inhibiting T cell trafficking into the SC, perhaps by acting as a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor.
PMID: 12458042 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
ALPHA-LIPOIC ACID AMELIORATES MYOCARDIAL TOXICITY INDUCED BY DOXORUBICIN.
Pharmacol Res 2002 Dec;46(6):499-503
AL-MAJED AA, GADO AM, AL-SHABANAH OA, MANSOUR MA.
Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2457, 11451, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
The effect of alpha-lipoic acid (LA) on the cardiotoxicity induced by doxorubicin (DOX) was investigated. A single dose of DOX (15mgkg(-1), i.p) induced cardiotoxicity manifested biochemically by a significant elevation of serum creatine phosphokinase (CK; EC: 18.104.22.168) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; EC: 22.214.171.124) 48h later. Moreover, cardiotoxicity was further confirmed by the significant increase in lipid peroxides measured as malondialdehyde (MDA), and significant decrease in protein thiols (Protein-SH) content in heart tissues. Administration of LA (100mgkg(-1)) orally for 5 days before and 2 days after DOX injection produced a significant protection against cardiotoxicity induced by DOX. The amelioration of cardiotoxicity was evident by significant reductions in serum CK and LDH. Moreover, LA prevented the rise of MDA as well as the significant reduction of Protein-SH. These results may suggest that LA has a protective effect against cardiotoxicity induced by DOX and it may, therefore, improve the therapeutic index of DOX.
PMID: 12457622 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Lipoic acid in the treatment of smell dysfunction following viral infection of the upper respiratory tract.
Laryngoscope 2002 Nov;112(11):2076-80
Hummel T, Heilmann S, Huttenbriuk KB.
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Dresden Medical School, Germany. email@example.com
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The study aimed to investigate the potential therapeutic effects of alpha-lipoic acid in olfactory loss following infections of the upper respiratory tract. Possible mechanisms of actions include the release of nerve growth factor and antioxidative effects, both of which may be helpful in the regeneration of olfactory receptor neurons. STUDY DESIGN: Unblinded, prospective clinical trial. METHODS: A total of 23 patients participated (13 women, 10 men; mean age 57 y, age range 22-79 y; mean duration of olfactory loss, 14 mo; range, 4 to 33 mo); 19 of them were hyposmic and 4 had functional anosmia. Alpha-lipoic acid was used orally at a dose of 600 mg/day; it was prescribed for an average period of 4.5 months. Olfactory function was assessed using olfactory tests for phenyl ethyl alcohol odor threshold, odor discrimination, and odor identification. RESULTS: Seven patients (30%) showed no change in olfactory function. Two patients (9%) exhibited a moderate decrease in olfactory function; in contrast, six patients (26%) showed moderate and eight patients (35%) remarkable increase in olfactory function. Two of the 4 patients with functional anosmia reached hyposmia; 5 of 19 hyposmic patients became normosmic. Overall, this resulted in a significant improvement in olfactory function following treatment (P =.002). At the end of treatment parosmias were less frequent (22%) than at the beginning of therapy (48%). Interestingly, recovery of olfactory function appeared to be more pronounced in younger patients than in patients above the age of 60 years (P =.018). CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that alpha-lipoic acid may be helpful in patients with olfactory loss after upper respiratory tract infection. However, to judge the true potential of this treatment, the outcome of double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in large groups of patients must be awaited, especially when considering the relatively high rate of spontaneous recovery in olfactory loss after upper respiratory tract infection.
PMID: 12439184 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Alpha-lipoic acid protects the retina against ischemia-reperfusion.
Neuropharmacology 2002 Nov;43(6):1015-25
Chidlow G, Schmidt KG, Wood JP, Melena J, Osborne NN.
Nuffield Laboratory of Ophthalmology, University of Oxford, Walton Street, OX2 6AW, Oxford, UK
The aim of this study was to examine whether the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid protects retinal neurons from ischemia-reperfusion injury. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with either vehicle or alpha-lipoic acid (100 mg/kg) once daily for 11 days. On the third day, ischemia was delivered to the rat retina by raising the intraocular pressure above systolic blood pressure for 45 min. The electroretinogram was measured prior to ischemia and 5 days after reperfusion. Rats were killed 5 or 8 days after reperfusion and the retinas were processed for immunohistochemistry and for determination of mRNA levels by RT-PCR. Ischemia-reperfusion caused a significant reduction of the a- and b-wave amplitudes of the electroretinogram, a decrease in nitric oxide synthase and Thy-1 immunoreactivities, a decrease of retinal ganglion cell-specific mRNAs and an increase in bFGF and CNTF mRNA levels. All of these changes were clearly counteracted by alpha-lipoic acid. Moreover, in mixed rat retinal cultures, alpha-lipoic acid partially counteracted the loss of GABA-immunoreactive neurons induced by anoxia. The results of the study demonstrate that alpha-lipoic acid provides protection to the retina as a whole, and to ganglion cells in particular, from ischemia-reperfusion injuries. alpha-Lipoic acid also displayed negligible affinity for voltage-dependent sodium and calcium channels.
PMID: 12423671 [PubMed - in process]
Lipoic acid and vitamin C potentiate nitric oxide synthesis in human aortic endothelial cells independently of cellular glutathione status.
Redox Rep 2002;7(4):223-7
Visioli F, Smith A, Zhang W, Keaney JF Jr, Hagen T, Frei B.
Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Vitamin C and thiol agents improve vasomotor function. To determine whether these compounds directly affect endothelial function, nitric oxide (NO) synthesis was measured in human aortic endothelial cells treated with ascorbic acid or the thiol modulating agents lipoic acid or L-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (OTC). A dose-dependent increase in A23187-stimulated NO synthesis and elevated cGMP levels were observed in all cases except for OTC. Cellular GSH levels were not significantly increased, and the GSH/GSSG ratio was not significantly affected by treatment of the cells with lipoic acid, OTC, or ascorbic acid. Thus, vitamin C and lipoic acid potentiate endothelial NO synthesis and bioactivity by mechanisms that appear to be independent of cellular GSH levels and redox environment.
PMID: 12396668 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Oxidative stress and stress-activated signaling pathways: a unifying hypothesis of type 2 diabetes.
Endocr Rev 2002 Oct;23(5):599-622
Evans JL, Goldfine ID, Maddux BA, Grodsky GM.
University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA. email@example.com
In both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, the late diabetic complications in nerve, vascular endothelium, and kidney arise from chronic elevations of glucose and possibly other metabolites including free fatty acids (FFA). Recent evidence suggests that common stress-activated signaling pathways such as nuclear factor-kappaB, p38 MAPK, and NH2-terminal Jun kinases/stress-activated protein kinases underlie the development of these late diabetic complications. In addition, in type 2 diabetes, there is evidence that the activation of these same stress pathways by glucose and possibly FFA leads to both insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion. Thus, we propose a unifying hypothesis whereby hyperglycemia and FFA-induced activation of the nuclear factor-kappaB, p38 MAPK, and NH2-terminal Jun kinases/stress-activated protein kinases stress pathways, along with the activation of the advanced glycosylation end-products/receptor for advanced glycosylation end-products, protein kinase C, and sorbitol stress pathways, plays a key role in causing late complications in type 1 and type 2 diabetes, along with insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes. Studies with antioxidants such as vitamin E, alpha-lipoic acid, and N-acetylcysteine suggest that new strategies may become available to treat these conditions.
PMID: 12372842 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Alpha-lipoic acid inhibits glycogen synthesis in rat soleus muscle via its oxidative activity and the uncoupling of mitochondria.
J Nutr 2002 Oct;132(10):3001-6
Dicter N, Madar Z, Tirosh O.
Institute of Biochemistry, Food Science and Nutrition, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76100, Israel.
alpha-Lipoic acid (LA) is currently being investigated as a glucose-lowering agent for diabetes control; it is also considered a powerful dietary antioxidant. The objective of this study was to investigate the fate of glucose in isolated rat muscles incubated with LA and determine its effects on intramuscular redox status. Rat soleus muscles were incubated for up to 60 min with 2.4 mmol/L LA in the presence or absence of insulin. Intramuscular concentrations of LA were evaluated (uptake and reduction), and glycogen synthesis, glucose oxidation, intramuscular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial membrane potential investigated. Insulin enhanced glycogen synthesis, whereas LA decreased rates by >50%. LA elevated ROS production and in combination with t-butylhydroperoxide, an oxidant, additively inhibited glycogen synthesis rates by 80%. Insulin acted as an antioxidant and attenuated ROS production by 30%. LA uncoupled the mitochondria and accelerated glucose oxidation 1.5-fold relative to the control. The glycogen synthesis pathway was found to be dependent on mitochondrial function because treatment with mitochondrial inhibitors eliminated the majority of glycogen synthesis. These data show that in this model, LA acts as a mild prooxidant, causing mitochondrial uncoupling and inhibition of glycogen synthesis. It appears that LA regulates glucose metabolism in the muscle differently than insulin.
PMID: 12368386 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Inhibition of glucose production and stimulation of bile flow by R (+)-alpha-lipoic acid enantiomer in rat liver.
Liver 2002 Aug;22(4):355-62
Anderwald C, Koca G, Furnsinn C, Waldhausl W, Roden M.
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine III, University of Vienna, Austria.
AIMS/BACKGROUND: R (+)-alpha-lipoic acid (RLA) has been suggested for the treatment of liver diseases, but has also been shown to improve glucose utilization in diabetic patients. Because detailed information of RLA action on carbohydrate metabolism in intact liver is lacking, we examined concentration-dependent effects of RLA on hepatic glucose production. METHODS: RLA (10(-6-)10(-3) mol L(-1)) or buffer (control) was infused in isolated livers of fasted rats during recirculating perfusion for 90 min (n = 4-6/group). Hepatic glucose and lactate fluxes and bile secretion were continuously monitored. RESULTS: RLA reduced lactate (10 mmol L(-1))-dependent glucose production in concentration-dependent fashion (R = - 0.780, P < 0.001) by up to 67% compared with control (0.36 +/- 0.02 micromol min(-1) g(-1)). In parallel, RLA dose dependently decreased lactate uptake (R = - 0.592, P < 0.001) also by up to 67% (control: 0.58 +/- 0.08 micromol min(-1) g(-1)). RLA (10(-4) mol L(-1) and 10(-3) mol L(-1)) stimulated bile flow by approximately 20 and approximately 50%, respectively (P < 0.02 vs. control). After 10(-3) mol L(-1) RLA infusion, liver glycogen was approximately 3 fold higher (5.2 +/- 1.1 vs. control: 1.8 +/- 0.2 micromol g(-1), P < 0.002). Also at low lactate concentrations (1 mmol L(-1)), 10(-3) mol L(-1) RLA reduced glucose production by approximately 53% and lactate uptake by approximately 60%, but stimulated bile secretion by approximately 50% (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: RLA reduces hepatic glucose release by inhibiting lactate-dependent glucose production in a concentration-dependent fashion.
PMID: 12296970 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Effect of DL-alpha-lipoic acid on the status of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in various brain regions of aged rats.
Exp Gerontol 2002 Jun;37(6):803-11
Arivazhagan P, Shila S, Kumaran S, Panneerselvam C.
Department of Medical Biochemistry, Dr AL Mudaliar Post Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Taramani Campus, Chennai 600 113, India.
The effect of DL-alpha-lipoic acid on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes were evaluated in various brain regions of young and aged rats. Lipoate contents of discrete brain regions were also measured. In aged rats, the activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were low whereas thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were found to be high. Catalase activity in various brain regions was little altered in aged rats. Lipoic acid an antioxidant was administered intraperitoneally (100mg/kg body weight per day) for 7 and 14 days. Lipoate administered aged rats showed a duration dependent reduction in the level of lipid peroxidation and elevation in the activities of antioxidant enzymes. There was a rise in the level of lipoate in aged rats after supplementation of lipoate in all the brain regions examined. From our results we conclude that lipoate supplementation had a beneficial effect in both preventing and reversing abnormalities in ageing brain. This beneficial effect was associated with normalization of lipid peroxidation and partial restoration in the activities of various enzymatic antioxidants suggesting that lipoate supplementation could improve brain antioxidant functions in the elderly.
PMID: 12175480 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Lead induced oxidative damage and its response to combined administration of alpha-lipoic acid and succimers in rats.
Toxicology 2002 Aug 15;177(2-3):187-96
Pande M, Flora SJ.
Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior, India.
Alpha-lipoic acid (LA) has been reported to be highly effective in improving the thiol capacity of the cells and in reducing lead induced oxidative stress. These results suggested its possible role as a therapeutic intervention of lead poisoning in combination with a chelator. We investigated the effects of LA, either alone or when administered in combination with succimer (meso 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid; DMSA or one of its analogue monoisoamyl DMSA), in influencing the lead induced alterations in haem synthesis pathway, hepatic, renal and brain oxidative stress and lead concentration from blood and soft tissues. The results suggest a significant lead induced inhibition of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), reduction in glutathione (GSH) and an increased zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) level in blood, indicating altered heme synthesis pathway. Both the thiol chelators were able to increase blood ALAD activity and GSH level towards normal. The most prominent effect on blood ALAD activity was however observed when monoisoamyl DMSA (MiADMSA) was co-administered with LA. Lead exposure produced significant depletion of hepatic GSH, while, oxidized glutahione (GSSG), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and catalase activity increased significantly, suggesting hepatic oxidative stress. All the treatments were able to increase hepatic GSH and reduce GSSG levels, while, TBARS level reduced significantly in animals administered LA and MiADMSA, individually or in combination. Lead induced increase in renal GSSG, TBARS levels and catalase activity, were effectively reduced by LA, while, the two chelators when administered alone were effective only in reducing GSSG and catalase activity. The most prominent beneficial effects, however, were observed in animals treated concomitantly with LA and one of the chelators (DMSA or MiADMSA). Brain GSH and GSSG levels decreased moderately while superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity remained statistically unaltered on lead exposure. Brain catalase activity, on the other hand, increased significantly. Administration of LA was effective in reducing these alterations in the brain, however, the best effects were achieved in animals co-administered LA and one of the thiol chelators. The results point to a significant beneficial role of LA in the recovery of altered biochemical variables both during monotherapy and when given in combination with succimer. It however, showed no chelating properties in decreasing lead burden from blood, liver and kidneys except for a significantly more pronounced decrease in brain lead concentration in animals administered LA plus thiol chelators, compared to the effects of chelating agents alone. This is an interesting and notable observation, which requires further exploration. The results thus provide evidence of an encouraging role of LA when given in combination with a thiol chelator in the therapeutic intervention of lead poisoning, particularly in reducing the oxidative stress and brain lead concentration.
PMID: 12135622 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Oxidative stress and diabetic neuropathy: pathophysiological mechanisms and treatment perspectives.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2002 May-Jun;18(3):176-84
van Dam PS.
Department of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands. P.S.vanDam@digd.azu.nl
Increased oxidative stress is a mechanism that probably plays a major role in the development of diabetic complications, including peripheral neuropathy. This review summarises recent data from in vitro and in vivo studies that have been performed both to understand this aspect of the pathophysiology of diabetic neuropathy and to develop therapeutic modalities for its prevention or treatment. Extensive animal studies have demonstrated that oxidative stress may be a final common pathway in the development of diabetic neuropathy, and that antioxidants can prevent or reverse hyperglycaemia-induced nerve dysfunction. Most probably, the effects of antioxidants are mediated by correction of nutritive blood flow, although direct effects on endoneurial oxidative state are not excluded. In a limited number of clinical studies, antioxidant drugs including alpha-lipoic acid and vitamin E were found to reduce neuropathic symptoms or to correct nerve conduction velocity. These data are promising, and additional larger studies with alpha-lipoic acid are currently being performed. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
PMID: 12112935 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Uptake, recycling, and antioxidant actions of alpha-lipoic acid in endothelial cells.
Free Radic Biol Med 2002 Jul 1;33(1):83-93
Jones W, Li X, Qu ZC, Perriott L, Whitesell RR, May JM.
Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232-6303, USA.
Alpha-lipoic acid, which becomes a powerful antioxidant in its reduced form, has been suggested as a dietary supplement to treat diseases associated with excessive oxidant stress. Because the vascular endothelium is dysfunctional in many of these conditions, we studied the uptake, reduction, and antioxidant effects of alpha-lipoic acid in cultured human endothelial cells (EA.hy926). Using a new assay for dihydrolipoic acid, we found that EA.hy926 cells rapidly take up and reduce alpha-lipoic acid to dihydrolipoic acid, most of which is released into the incubation medium. Nonetheless, the cells maintain dihydrolipoic acid following overnight culture, probably by recycling it from alpha-lipoic acid. Acute reduction of alpha-lipoic acid activates the pentose phosphate cycle and consumes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). Lysates of EA.hy926 cells reduce alpha-lipoic acid using both NADPH and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) as electron donors, although NADPH-dependent reduction is about twice that due to NADH. NADPH-dependent alpha-lipoic acid reduction is mostly due to thioredoxin reductase. Pre-incubation of cells with alpha-lipoic acid increases their capacity to reduce extracellular ferricyanide, to recycle intracellular dehydroascorbic acid to ascorbate, to decrease reactive oxygen species generated by redox cycling of menadione, and to generate nitric oxide. These results show that alpha-lipoic acid enhances both the antioxidant defenses and the function of endothelial cells.
PMID: 12086686 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Lipoic acid as an antioxidant in mature thoroughbred geldings: a preliminary study.
J Nutr 2002 Jun;132(6 Suppl 2):1628S-31S
Williams CA, Hoffman RM, Kronfeld DS, Hess TM, Saker KE, Harris PA.
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
alpha-Lipoic acid (LA) has demonstrated antioxidant effects in humans and laboratory animals. The objective of this study was to determine whether the effects of LA are similar in horses. Five Thoroughbred geldings were supplemented with 10 mg/kg/d DL-alpha-lipoic acid in a molasses and sweet feed carrier and five received only the carrier as a placebo (CON). Blood samples were obtained at baseline (0 d), after 7 and 14 d of supplementation, and 48 h postsupplementation (16 d). Blood fractions of red and white blood cells (RBC and WBC, respectively) and plasma were analyzed for glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and total plasma lipid hydroperoxides (LPO). An experienced veterinarian observed no adverse clinical effects. Plasma LPO baselines differed between groups (P = 0.002). When covariates were used, there was a decrease over time in the LA group (P = 0.015) and concentrations were lower in the LA group than in the CON group at 7 and 14 d (P = 0.022 and P = 0.0002, respectively). At baseline, GSH concentration was 69 +/- 7 in WBC and 115 +/- 13 mmol/mg protein in the RBC, with no differences resulting from either time or treatment. The GPx activity was 47 +/- 4 and 26 +/- 5 U/g protein at baseline WBC and RBC, respectively, with a lower concentration in the LA group's WBC at 7 (P = 0.019) and 14 d (P = 0.013). The results show that 10 mg/kg LA had no evident adverse effects, and moderately reduced the oxidative stress of horses allowed light activity. These findings encourage studying of LA in horses subjected to strenuous exercise.
PMID: 12042475 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Effect of alpha-lipoic acid on lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidant enzyme activities in diabetic rats.
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2002 Apr;29(4):281-4
Dincer Y, Telci A, Kayali R, Yilmaz IA, Cakatay U, Akcay T.
Deparment of Biochemistry, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey. email@example.com
1. Oxidative damage has been suggested to be a contributory factor in the development and complications of diabetes. Recently, alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) has gained considerable interest as an anti-oxidant. Various studies have indicated the anti- oxidant effects of ALA and its reduced form dihydrolipoic acid. Therefore, it appears that these compounds have important therapeutic potential in conditions where oxidative stress is involved. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ALA supplementation on lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidant enzyme activities in various tissues in diabetic rats. 2. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) injection in the two groups of rats to be supplemented and not to be supplemented with ALA. Another group of rats, which received saline injection, formed the control group. After 5 weeks of diabetes, rats were killed. In order to assess the redox status of various organs in the diabetic and control rats, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and glutathione (GSH) levels, as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (G-Px) and glutathione reductase (G-Red) activities were determined in the liver, pancreas and kidney. 3. In both diabetic groups, TBARS levels and SOD activity were increased in the liver and pancreas, G-Px and G-Red activities were increased in the kidney and GSH levels were decreased in all organs compared with controls. In the ALA- supplemented group, TBARS levels were decreased, GSH levels were increased in the liver and pancreas, SOD activity was decreased in the liver, G-Px activity remained unchanged in all tissues and G-Red activity was increased in the pancreas compared with the diabetic group that did not receive ALA supplementation. 4. In conclusion, ALA supplementation has disparate effects on the redox status of different organs. These data are not sufficient for confirmation the beneficial effects of ALA supplementation on the redox status of various organs in diabetic rats.
PMID: 11985536 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Can antioxidant diet supplementation protect against age-related mitochondrial damage?
Ann N Y Acad Sci 2002 Apr;959:508-16
Department of Biotechnology, University of Alicante, E-03080 Alicante, Spain.
Harman's free radical theory of aging and our electron-microscopic finding of an age-related mitochondrial degeneration in the somatic tissues of the insect Drosophila melanogaster as well as in the fixed postmitotic Leydig and Sertoli cells of the mouse testis led us to propose a mitochondrial theory of aging, according to which metazoan senescence may be linked to oxygen stress-injury to the genome and membranes of the mitochondria of somatic differentiated cells. These concepts attract a great deal of attention, since, according to recent work, the mitochondrial damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and concomitant decline in ATP synthesis seem to play a key role not only in aging, but also in the fundamental cellular process of apoptosis. Although diet supplementation with antioxidants has not been able to increase consistently the species-characteristic maximum life span, it results in significant extension of the mean life span of laboratory animals. Moreover, diets containing high levels of antioxidants such as vitamins C and E seem able to reduce the risk of suffering age-related immune dysfunctions and arteriosclerosis. Presently, the focus of age-related antioxidant research is on compounds, such as deprenyl, coenzyme Q10, alpha-lipoic acid, and the glutathione-precursors thioproline and N-acetylcysteine, which may be able to neutralize the ROS at their sites of production in the mitochondria. Diet supplementation with these antioxidants may protect the mitochondria against respiration-linked oxygen stress, with preservation of the genomic and structural integrity of these energy-producing organelles and concomitant increase in functional life span.
PMID: 11976223 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Mitochondrial decay in the aging rat heart: evidence for improvement by dietary supplementation with acetyl-L-carnitine and/or lipoic acid.
Ann N Y Acad Sci 2002 Apr;959:491-507
Hagen TM, Moreau R, Suh JH, Visioli F.
Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Mitochondrial decay has been postulated to be a significant underlying part of the aging process. Decline in mitochondrial function may lead to cellular energy deficits, especially in times of greater energy demand, and compromise vital ATP-dependent cellular operations, including detoxification, repair systems, DNA replication, and osmotic balance. Mitochondrial decay may also lead to enhanced oxidant production and thus render the cell more prone to oxidative insult. In particular, the heart may be especially susceptible to mitochondrial dysfunction due to myocardial dependency on beta-oxidation of fatty acids for energy and the postmitotic nature of cardiac myocytes, which would allow for greater accumulation of mitochondrial mutations and deletions. Thus, maintenance of mitochondrial function may be important to maintain overall myocardial function. Herein, we review the major age-related changes that occur to mitochondria in the aging heart and the evidence that two such supplements, acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR) and (R)-alpha-lipoic acid, may improve myocardial bioenergetics and lower the increased oxidative stress associated with aging. We and others have shown that feeding old rats ALCAR reverses the age-related decline in carnitine levels and improves mitochondrial beta-oxidation in a number of tissues studied. However, ALCAR supplementation does not appear to reverse the age-related decline in cardiac antioxidant status and thus may not substantially alter indices of oxidative stress. Lipoic acid, a potent thiol antioxidant and mitochondrial metabolite, appears to increase low molecular weight antioxidant status and thereby decreases age-associated oxidative insult. Thus, ALCAR along with lipoic acid may be effective supplemental regimens to maintain myocardial function.
PMID: 11976222 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Delaying brain mitochondrial decay and aging with mitochondrial antioxidants and metabolites.
Ann N Y Acad Sci 2002 Apr;959:133-66
Liu J, Atamna H, Kuratsune H, Ames BN.
Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.
Mitochondria decay with age due to the oxidation of lipids, proteins, RNA, and DNA. Some of this decay can be reversed in aged animals by feeding them the mitochondrial metabolites acetylcarnitine and lipoic acid. In this review, we summarize our recent studies on the effects of these mitochondrial metabolites and mitochondrial antioxidants (alpha-phenyl-N-t-butyl nitrone and N-t-butyl hydroxylamine) on the age-associated mitochondrial decay of the brain of old rats, neuronal cells, and human diploid fibroblast cells. In feeding studies in old rats, these mitochondrial metabolites and antioxidants improve the age-associated decline of ambulatory activity and memory, partially restore mitochondrial structure and function, inhibit the age-associated increase of oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, elevate the levels of antioxidants, and restore the activity and substrate binding affinity of a key mitochondrial enzyme, carnitine acetyltransferase. These mitochondrial metabolites and antioxidants protect neuronal cells from neurotoxin- and oxidant-induced toxicity and oxidative damage; delay the normal senescence of human diploid fibroblast cells, and inhibit oxidant-induced acceleration of senescence. These results suggest a plausible mechanism: with age, increased oxidative damage to proteins and lipid membranes, particularly in mitochondria, causes a deformation of structure of enzymes, with a consequent decrease of enzyme activity as well as substrate binding affinity for their substrates; an increased level of substrate restores the velocity of the reaction and restores mitochondrial function, thus delaying mitochondrial decay and aging. This loss of activity due to coenzyme or substrate binding appears to be true for a number of other enzymes as well, including mitochondrial complex III and IV.
PMID: 11976193 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Natural products used for diabetes.
J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash) 2002 Mar-Apr;42(2):217-26
Shapiro K, Gong WC.
College of Pharmacy, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, Calif 91766-1854, USA. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE: To review the efficacy and safety of natural products commonly used for diabetes. DATA SOURCES: English and Spanish-language journals retrieved through a MEDLINE search of articles published between 1960 and December 2001 using these index terms: Opuntia, karela, gymnema, tecoma, alpha lipoic acid, thioctic acid, ginseng, panaxans, and diabetes. DATA SYNTHESIS: Natural products have long been used in traditional systems of medicine for diabetes. Products in common use include nopal (prickly pear cactus), fenu-greek, karela (bitter melon), gymnema, ginseng, tronadora, chromium, and alpha-lipoic acid. The popularity of these products varies among people of different ethnicities. Nopal is the most commonly used herbal hypoglycemic among persons of Mexican descent. Karela is more commonly used by persons from Asian countries. Some of these agents have gained universal appeal. For a select number of products, studies have revealed single or multiple mechanisms of action. For several of these, high soluble fiber content is a contributing factor. CONCLUSION: Based on the available evidence, several natural products in common use can lower blood glucose in patients with diabetes. Commonly used natural products often have a long history of traditional use, and pharmacists who have a stronger understanding of these products are better positioned to counsel patients on their appropriate use.
PMID: 11926665 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Protective effect of alpha-lipoic acid against ischaemic acute renal failure in rats.
J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash) 2002 Mar-Apr;42(2):217-26
Takaoka M, Ohkita M, Kobayashi Y, Yuba M, Matsumura Y.
Department of Pharmacology, Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka, Japan.
1. In the present study, we investigated whether treatment with alpha-lipoic acid (LA), a powerful and universal anti-oxidant, has renal protective effects in rats with ischaemic acute renal failure (ARF). 2. Ischaemic ARF was induced by occlusion of the left renal artery and vein for 45 min followed by reperfusion, 2 weeks after contralateral nephrectomy. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), plasma concentrations of creatinine (Pcr) and urinary osmolality (Uosm) were measured for the assessment of renal dysfunction. Creatinine clearance (Ccr) and fractional excretion of Na+ (FENa) were used as indicators of glomerular and tubular function, respectively. 3. Renal function in ARF rats decreased markedly 24 h after reperfusion. Intraperitoneal injection of LA at a dose of 10 mg/kg before the occlusion tended to attenuate the deterioration of renal function. A higher dose of LA (100 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.01) attenuated the ischaemia/reperfusion-induced increases in BUN (19.1 +/- 0.7 vs 7.2 +/- 0.7 mmol/L before and after treatment, respectively), Pcr (290 +/- 36 vs 78.1 +/- 4.2 micromol/L before and after treatment, respectively) and FENa (1.39 +/- 0.3 vs 0.33 +/- 0.09% before and after treatment, respectively). Treatment with 100 mg/kg LA significantly (P < 0.01) increased Ccr (0.70 +/- 0.13 vs 2.98 +/- 0.27 mL/min per kg before and after treatment, respectively) and Uosm (474 +/- 39 vs 1096 +/- 80 mOsmol/kg before and after treatment, respectively). 4. Histopathological examination of the kidney of ARF rats revealed severe lesions. Tubular necrosis (P < 0.01), proteinaceous casts in tubuli (P < 0.01) and medullary congestion (P < 0.05) were significantly suppressed by the higher dose of LA. 5. A marked increase in endothelin (ET)-1 content in the kidney after ischaemia/reperfusion was evident in ARF rats (0.43 +/- 0.02 ng/g tissue) compared with findings in sham- operated rats (0.20 +/- 0.01 ng/g tissue). Significant attenuation (P < 0.01) of this increase occurred in ARF rats treated with the higher dose of LA (0.24 +/- 0.03 ng/g tissue). 6. These results suggest that administration of LA to rats prior to development of ischaemic ARF prevents renal dysfunction and tissue injury, possibly through the suppression of overproduction of ET-1 in the postischaemic kidney.
PMID: 11906481 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Memory loss in old rats is associated with brain mitochondrial decay and RNA/DNA oxidation: partial reversal by feeding acetyl-L-carnitine and/or R-alpha -lipoic acid.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002 Feb 19;99(4):2356-61
Liu J, Head E, Gharib AM, Yuan W, Ingersoll RT, Hagen TM, Cotman CW, Ames BN.
Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
Accumulation of oxidative damage to mitochondria, protein, and nucleic acid in the brain may lead to neuronal and cognitive dysfunction. The effects on cognitive function, brain mitochondrial structure, and biomarkers of oxidative damage were studied after feeding old rats two mitochondrial metabolites, acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR) [0.5% or 0.2% (wt/vol) in drinking water], and/or R-alpha-lipoic acid (LA) [0.2% or 0.1% (wt/wt) in diet]. Spatial memory was assessed by using the Morris water maze; temporal memory was tested by using the peak procedure (a time-discrimination procedure). Dietary supplementation with ALCAR and/or LA improved memory, the combination being the most effective for two different tests of spatial memory (P < 0.05; P < 0.01) and for temporal memory (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical analysis showed that oxidative damage to nucleic acids (8-hydroxyguanosine and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine) increased with age in the hippocampus, a region important for memory. Oxidative damage to nucleic acids occurred predominantly in RNA. Dietary administration of ALCAR and/or LA significantly reduced the extent of oxidized RNA, the combination being the most effective. Electron microscopic studies in the hippocampus showed that ALCAR and/or LA reversed age-associated mitochondrial structural decay. These results suggest that feeding ALCAR and LA to old rats improves performance on memory tasks by lowering oxidative damage and improving mitochondrial function.
PMID: 11854529 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Age-associated mitochondrial oxidative decay: improvement of carnitine acetyltransferase substrate-binding affinity and activity in brain by feeding old rats acetyl-L- carnitine and/or R-alpha -lipoic acid.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002 Feb 19;99(4):1876-81
Liu J, Killilea DW, Ames BN.
Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
We test whether the dysfunction with age of carnitine acetyltransferase (CAT), a key mitochondrial enzyme for fuel utilization, is due to decreased binding affinity for substrate and whether this substrate, fed to old rats, restores CAT activity. The kinetics of CAT were analyzed by using the brains of young and old rats and of old rats supplemented for 7 weeks with the CAT substrate acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR) and/or the mitochondrial antioxidant precursor R-alpha-lipoic acid (LA). Old rats, compared with young rats, showed a decrease in CAT activity and in CAT-binding affinity for both substrates, ALCAR and CoA. Feeding ALCAR or ALCAR plus LA to old rats significantly restored CAT-binding affinity for ALCAR and CoA, and CAT activity. To explore the underlying mechanism, lipid peroxidation and total iron and copper levels were assayed; all increased in old rats. Feeding old rats LA or LA plus ALCAR inhibited lipid peroxidation but did not decrease iron and copper levels. Ex vivo oxidation of young-rat brain with Fe(II) caused loss of CAT activity and binding affinity. In vitro oxidation of purified CAT with Fe(II) inactivated the enzyme but did not alter binding affinity. However, in vitro treatment of CAT with the lipid peroxidation products malondialdehyde or 4-hydroxy-nonenal caused a decrease in CAT-binding affinity and activity, thus mimicking age-related change. Preincubation of CAT with ALCAR or CoA prevented malondialdehyde-induced dysfunction. Thus, feeding old rats high levels of key mitochondrial metabolites can ameliorate oxidative damage, enzyme activity, substrate-binding affinity, and mitochondrial dysfunction.
PMID: 11854488 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Feeding acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid to old rats significantly improves metabolic function while decreasing oxidative stress.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002 Feb 19;99(4):1870-5
Hagen TM, Liu J, Lykkesfeldt J, Wehr CM, Ingersoll RT, Vinarsky V, Bartholomew JC, Ames BN.
Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA.
Mitochondrial-supported bioenergetics decline and oxidative stress increases during aging. To address whether the dietary addition of acetyl-l-carnitine [ALCAR, 1.5% (wt/vol) in the drinking water] and/or (R)-alpha-lipoic acid [LA, 0.5% (wt/wt) in the chow] improved these endpoints, young (2-4 mo) and old (24-28 mo) F344 rats were supplemented for up to 1 mo before death and hepatocyte isolation. ALCAR+LA partially reversed the age-related decline in average mitochondrial membrane potential and significantly increased (P = 0.02) hepatocellular O(2) consumption, indicating that mitochondrial-supported cellular metabolism was markedly improved by this feeding regimen. ALCAR+LA also increased ambulatory activity in both young and old rats; moreover, the improvement was significantly greater (P = 0.03) in old versus young animals and also greater when compared with old rats fed ALCAR or LA alone. To determine whether ALCAR+LA also affected indices of oxidative stress, ascorbic acid and markers of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) were monitored. The hepatocellular ascorbate level markedly declined with age (P = 0.003) but was restored to the level seen in young rats when ALCAR+LA was given. The level of malondialdehyde, which was significantly higher (P = 0.0001) in old versus young rats, also declined after ALCAR+LA supplementation and was not significantly different from that of young unsupplemented rats. Feeding ALCAR in combination with LA increased metabolism and lowered oxidative stress more than either compound alone.
PMID: 11854487 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Prevention of hypertension, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress by alpha-lipoic acid.
Hypertension 2002 Feb;39(2):303-7
El Midaoui A, de Champlain J.
Research group on Autonomic Nervous System, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medecine, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a dietary supplementation of alpha-lipoic acid could prevent blood pressure elevation, insulin resistance, and the increase in aorta superoxide anion production in a new experimental model of hypertension associated with insulin resistance. Sprague-Dawley rats were given 10% D-glucose in their drinking water combined either with a normal chow diet or with an alpha-lipoic acid-supplemented diet and were compared with control rats during 3 weeks. Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring the aortic superoxide anion production using the lucigenin chemiluminescence method. Increases in blood pressure, insulin resistance, and aorta superoxide production observed in glucose-fed rats were prevented by the supplementation of the diet with lipoic acid. Positive correlations were found between aortic superoxide production and blood pressure, between insulin resistance and blood pressure, or between superoxide production and insulin resistance. Moreover, a decrease in the activity of plasma glutathione peroxidase observed in the glucose-fed rats was prevented by lipoic acid treatment. These findings demonstrate that high-glucose feeding rapidly induced hypertension and insulin resistance in association with the induction of a vascular oxidative stress. The antihypertensive action and the prevention of insulin resistance by lipoic acid appears to be associated to its antioxidative properties because it prevented the increase in oxidative stress, as reflected by the normalization of superoxide anion production in aorta and the prevention of the fall in the activity of glutathione peroxidase in the glucose-fed rats.
PMID: 11847202 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Alpha-lipoic acid attenuates hyperglycemia and prevents glomerular mesangial matrix expansion in diabetes.
J Am Soc Nephrol 2002 Jan;13(1):108-16
Melhem MF, Craven PA, Liachenko J, DeRubertis FR.
Department of Pathology, VA Pittsburgh Healthcare System and University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15240, USA.
Previous studies demonstrated that 2 mo of dietary supplementation with alpha-lipoic acid (LA) prevented early glomerular injury in non-insulin-treated streptozotocin diabetic rats (D). The present study examined the effects of chronic LA supplementation (30 mg/kg body wt per d) on nephropathy in D after 7 mo of diabetes. Compared with control rats, D developed increased urinary excretion of albumin and transforming growth factor beta, renal insufficiency, glomerular mesangial matrix expansion, and glomerulosclerosis in association with depletion of glutathione and accumulation of malondialdehyde in renal cortex. LA prevented or ameliorated all of these changes in D. Because chronic LA supplementation also attenuated hyperglycemia in D after 3 mo, its effects on renal injury were compared with treatment of rats with sufficient insulin to maintain a level of glycemic control for the entire 7-mo period (D-INS) equivalent to that observed with LA during the final 4 mo. Despite superior longitudinal glycemic control in D-INS, urinary excretion of albumin and transforming growth factor beta, glomerular mesangial matrix expansion, the extent of glomerulosclerosis, and renal cortical malondialdehyde content were all significantly greater, whereas cortical glutathione content was lower than corresponding values in D given LA. Thus, the renoprotective effects of LA in D were not attributable to improved glycemic control alone but also likely reflected its antioxidant activity. The combined antioxidant and hypoglycemic actions of LA both may contribute to its utility in preventing renal injury and other complications of diabetes.
PMID: 11752027 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Chronic fatigue syndrome: oxidative stress and dietary modifications.
Altern Med Rev 2001 Oct;6(5):450-9
Logan AC, Wong C.
CFS/FM Integrative Care Centre, Toronto, ON, Canada. alancloganND@excite.com
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is an illness characterized by persistent and relapsing fatigue, often accompanied by numerous symptoms involving various body systems. The etiology of CFS remains unclear; however, a number of recent studies have shown oxidative stress may be involved in its pathogenesis. The role of oxidative stress in CFS is an important area for current and future research as it suggests the use of antioxidants in the management of CFS. Specifically, the dietary supplements glutathione, N-acetylcysteine, alpha-lipoic acid, oligomeric proanthocyanidins, Ginkgo biloba, and Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry) may be beneficial. In addition, research on food intolerance is discussed, since food intolerance may be involved in CFS symptom presentation and in oxidation via cytokine induction. Finally, recent evidence suggests celiac disease can present with neurological symptoms in the absence of gastrointestinal symptoms; therefore, celiac disease should be included in the differential diagnosis of CFS.
PMID: 11703165 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Use of antioxidant nutrients in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes.
J Am Coll Nutr 2001 Oct;20(5 Suppl):363S-369S; discussion 381S-383S
Ruhe RC, McDonald RB.
Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis 95616-8669, USA.
Type 2 diabetes, or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), is increasingly common throughout the world. The World Health Organization has predicted that between 1997 and 2025, the number of diabetics will double from 143 million to about 300 million. The incidence of NIDDM is highest in economically developed nations, particularly the U.S., where approximately 6.5% of the population (17 million people) have either diagnosed or undiagnosed diabetes. The two most important factors contributing to the development of NIDDM are obesity and physical inactivity. The leading cause of mortality and morbidity in people with NIDDM is cardiovascular disease caused by macro- and microvascular degeneration. Current therapies for NIDDM focus primarily on weight reduction. Indeed, several investigations indicate that 65% to 75% of cases of diabetes in Caucasians could be avoided if individuals in this subgroup did not exceed their ideal weight. The success of this approach has been, at best, modest. An alternate approach to the control of Type 2 diabetes is to arrest the progress of the pathology until a cure has been found. To this end, some investigators suggest that dietary antioxidants may be of value. Several studies in humans and laboratory animals with NIDDM indicate that vitamin E and lipoic acid supplements lessen the impact of oxidative damage caused by dysregulation of glucose metabolism. In this brief review, we discuss the incidence, etiology, and current therapies for NIDDM and further explore the usefulness of dietary antioxidants in treating this disorder.
PMID: 11603645 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Alpha-Lipoic acid prevents the development of glucose-induced insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and accelerates the decline in immunoreactive insulin during cell incubation.
Metabolism 2001 Sep;50(9):1063-9
Greene EL, Nelson BA, Robinson KA, Buse MG.
Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA.
Oxidative stress has been implicated in glucose toxicity. We tested the hypothesis that certain antioxidants may prevent insulin-resistant glucose transport that develops in adipocytes after sustained exposure to high glucose, provided insulin is present. The antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid has been proposed as an insulin sensitizer. 3T3-L1 adipocytes were preincubated 18 hours in media containing insulin (0.6 nmol/L) with low (5 mmol/L) or high (25 mmol/L) glucose with or without alpha-lipoate, dihydrolipoate (each 0.1 to 0.5 mmol/L), or N-acetylcysteine (1 to 5 mmol/L). After extensive re-equilibration in insulin and antioxidant-free media, basal and maximally insulin-stimulated (100 nmol/L) glucose transport was measured. Insulin was quantified by radioimmunoassay. Preincubation with alpha-lipoate and dihydrolipoate but not N-acetylcysteine increased subsequent basal glucose transport; the effect was much smaller than that of acute maximal insulin stimulation. Preincubation in high glucose without antioxidants inhibited acutely insulin-stimulated glucose transport by 40% to 50% compared with low glucose. This down- regulation was partially or completely prevented by each antioxidant. In cell-free media, the 2 reductants, dihydrolipoate and N-acetylcysteine, rapidly decreased immunoreactive insulin, but alpha-lipoate was ineffective. However, during incubation with adipocytes, alpha-lipoate, and dihydrolipoate promoted the decline in immunoreactive insulin nearly equally. Because insulin and high glucose are synergistic in inducing insulin resistance in this model, the reduction in immunoreactive insulin probably contributed to the protective effect of the antioxidants. 3T3-L1 adipocytes efficiently metabolize alpha-lipoate to dihydrolipoate, which may be released into the medium. The stimulation of glucose transport by alpha-lipoic acid may represent redox effects in subcellular compartments that are accessible to dihydrolipoate. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company
PMID: 11555840 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Alpha-lipoic acid: a multifunctional antioxidant that improves insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes Technol Ther 2000 Autumn;2(3):401-13
Evans JL, Goldfine ID.
Medical Research Institute, San Bruno, California 94066, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Alpha-Lipoic acid (LA) is a disulfide compound that is produced in small quantities in cells, and functions naturally as a co-enzyme in the pyruvate dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase mitochondrial enzyme complexes. In pharmacological doses, LA is a multifunctional antioxidant. LA has been used in Germany for over 30 years for the treatment of diabetes-induced neuropathy. In patients with type 2 diabetes, recent studies have reported that intravenous (i.v.) infusion of LA increases insulin-mediated glucose disposal, whereas oral administration of LA has only marginal effects. If the limitations of oral therapy can be overcome, LA could emerge as a safe and effective adjunctive antidiabetic agent with insulin sensitizing activity.
PMID: 11467343 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Alpha-lipoic acid as a new treatment option for Azheimer type dementia.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2001 Jun;32(3):275-282
Hager K, Marahrens A, Kenklies M, Riederer P, Munch G.
Department of Medical Rehabilitation and Geriatrics, Henriettenstiftung, Schwemannstrasse 19, D-30559, Hannover, Germany
Oxidative stress and energy depletion are characteristic biochemical hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), thus antioxidants with positive effects on glucose metabolism such as thioctic (alpha-lipoic) acid should exert positive effects in these patients. Therefore, 600 mg alpha-lipoic acid was given daily to nine patients with AD and related dementias (receiving a standard treatment with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors) in an open study over an observation period of, on avarage, 337+/-80 days. The treatment led to a stabilization of cognitive functions in the study group, demonstrated by constant scores in two neuropsychological tests (mini-mental state examination: MMSE and AD assessment scale, cognitive subscale: ADAScog). Despite the fact that this study was small and not randomized, this is the first indication that treatment with alpha-lipoic acid might be a successful 'neuroprotective' therapy option for AD and related dementias.
PMID: 11395173 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Dietary lipoic acid supplementation prevents fructose-induced hypertension in rats.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2000 Dec;10(6):339-46
Vasdev S, Ford CA, Parai S, Longerich L, Gadag V.
Department of Medicine, Room H-4310, Health Sciences Centre, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada A1B 3V6.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In fructose-induced hypertension in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, excess endogenous aldehydes bind sulfhydryl groups of membrane proteins, alter membrane Ca2+ channels and increase cytosolic free calcium and blood pressure. The thiol compound N-acetyl cysteine prevents such hypertension by binding these aldehydes and normalizing membrane Ca2+ channels and cytosolic free calcium. The aim of this work was to investigate whether dietary supplementation of an endogenous fatty acid, alpha-lipoic acid, another thiol compound known to increase cysteine and glutathione, prevents this hypertension and its associated biochemical and histopathological changes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Starting at seven weeks of age, animals were divided into three groups of six animals each and treated as follows: control (normal diet and normal drinking water); fructose (normal diet and 4% fructose in drinking water); fructose + lipoic acid (diet supplemented with lipoic acid 500 mg/kg feed and 4% fructose in drinking water). After 14 weeks, systolic blood pressure, platelet [Ca2+]i, plasma glucose and insulin and kidney and aortic aldehyde conjugates were significantly higher in the fructose group. These also displayed smooth muscle cell hyperplasia in the small arteries and arterioles of the kidneys. CONCLUSION: Dietary alpha-lipoic acid supplementation in fructose-treated WKY rats may prevent their increase in systolic blood pressure by normalizing cytosolic [Ca2+], blood glucose and insulin, kidney and aortic aldehyde conjugates and preventing adverse renal vascular changes.
PMID: 11302009 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Oxidative stress in the aging rat heart is reversed by dietary supplementation with (R)-(alpha)-lipoic acid.
FASEB J 2001 Mar;15(3):700-6
Suh JH, Shigeno ET, Morrow JD, Cox B, Rocha AE, Frei B, Hagen TM.
Linus Pauling Institute, Department of Biochemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331, USA.
Oxidative stress has been implicated as a causal factor in the aging process of the heart and other tissues. To determine the extent of age-related myocardial oxidative stress, oxidant production, antioxidant status, and oxidative DNA damage were measured in hearts of young (2 months) and old (28 months) male Fischer 344 rats. Cardiac myocytes isolated from old rats showed a nearly threefold increase in the rate of oxidant production compared to young rats, as measured by the rates of 2,7-dichlorofluorescin diacetate oxidation. Determination of myocardial antioxidant status revealed a significant twofold decline in the levels of ascorbic acid (P = 0.03), but not alpha-tocopherol. A significant age-related increase (P = 0.05) in steady-state levels of oxidative DNA damage was observed, as monitored by 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine levels. To investigate whether dietary supplementation with (R)-alpha-lipoic acid (LA) was effective at reducing oxidative stress, young and old rats were fed an AIN-93M diet with or without 0.2% (w/w) LA for 2 wk before death. Cardiac myocytes from old, LA-supplemented rats exhibited a markedly lower rate of oxidant production that was no longer significantly different from that in cells from unsupplemented, young rats. Lipoic acid supplementation also restored myocardial ascorbic acid levels and reduced oxidative DNA damage. Our data indicate that the aging rat heart is under increased mitochondrial-induced oxidative stress, which is significantly attenuated by lipoic acid supplementation.
PMID: 11259388 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid and protein turnover in insulin-resistant rat muscle.
Free Radic Biol Med 2001 Feb 15;30(4):383-8
Weinstein RB, Tritschler HJ, Henriksen EJ.
Muscle Metabolism Laboratory, Department of Physiology, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ 85721-0093, USA.
We have shown previously that the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) can stimulate glucose transport and can enhance the stimulation of this process by insulin in skeletal muscle from insulin-resistant obese Zucker rats. As insulin can also acutely activate general protein synthesis and inhibit net protein degradation in skeletal muscle, we hypothesized that ALA could directly affect protein turnover and also increase the effect of insulin on protein turnover in isolated skeletal muscle from developing obese Zucker rats. In epitrochlearis muscles isolated from obese Zucker rats, insulin (2 mU/ml) significantly (p < 0.05) increased in vitro protein synthesis (phenylalanine incorporation into protein) and decreased net protein degradation (tyrosine release), whereas a racemic mixture of ALA (2 mM) had no effect on either process. Interestingly, rates of protein synthesis in muscle from obese Zucker rats were substantially lower compared to those values observed in age-matched insulin-sensitive Wistar rats, whereas rates of protein degradation were comparable. Obese Zucker rats were also treated chronically with either vehicle or ALA (50 mg/kg/d for 10 d). Again, insulin significantly increased net protein synthesis and decreased net protein degradation in epitrochlearis muscles isolated from vehicle-treated obese Zucker rats; however, this stimulatory effect of insulin was not improved by prior in vivo ALA treatment. These results indicate that the previously described effect of the antioxidant ALA to increase insulin-stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle of obese, insulin-resistant rats does not apply to another important insulin-regulatable process, protein turnover. These findings imply that the cellular mode of action for ALA is restricted to signaling factors unique to the activation of glucose transport, and does not involve the pathway of stimulation of general protein synthesis and net protein degradation.
PMID: 11182293 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Antioxidant loading reduces oxidative stress induced by high-energy impulse noise (blast) exposure.
Toxicology 2000 Nov 30;155(1-3):91-9
Elsayed NM, Armstrong KL, William MT, Cooper MF.
Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC, USA. email@example.com
Detonation of explosives, firing of large caliber weapons and occupational explosions, professional or accidental, produce high-energy impulse noise (blast) waves characterized by a rapid rise in atmospheric pressure (overpressure) followed by gradual decay to ambient level. Exposure to blast waves causes injury, predominantly to the hollow organs such as ears and lungs. We have previously reported that blast exposure can induce free radical-mediated oxidative stress in the lung characterized by antioxidant depletion, lipid peroxidation, and hemoglobin (Hb) oxidation. In this study, we examined whether pre-loading, adequately fed rats, with pharmacological doses of antioxidants would reduce the response to blast. Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 300-350 g were loaded with either 800 IU vitamin E (VE), 1000 mg vitamin C (VC) or 25 mg lipoic acid (LA) for 3 consecutive days by gavage before exposure to blast. Both VE, and LA were dissolved in 2 ml corn oil, but VC in 2 ml water. After the 3-day antioxidant loading, the rats were divided into six groups (five rats per group), deeply anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital (60 mg/kg body weight), then exposed to a low-level blast (62+/-2 kPa peak pressure and 5 ms duration). A matched number of groups were sham exposed and served as controls. One hour after exposure, all rats were euthanized then blood, and lung tissue was analyzed. We found that antioxidant loading resulted in restored Hb oxygenation, and reduced lipid peroxidation. Lung tissue VE content was elevated after loading but VC did not change possibly due to their different bioavailability and saturation kinetics. These observations, suggest that brief antioxidant loading with pharmacological doses can reduce blast-induced oxidative stress, and may have occupational and clinical implications.
PMID: 11154801 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Effect of DL-alpha-lipoic acid on mitochondrial enzymes in aged rats.
Chem Biol Interact 2001 Nov 28;138(2):189-98
Arivazhagan P, Ramanathan K, Panneerselvam C.
Department of Medical Biochemistry, Dr A.L. Mudaliar Post Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Taramani Campus, 600-113, Chennai, India.
Mitochondrial dysfunction appears to contribute to some of the loss of function accompanying ageing. Mitochondria from aged tissue use oxygen inefficiently impairing ATP synthesis and results in increased oxidant production. A high flux of oxidants not only damages mitochondria, but other important cell biomolecules as well. In the present investigation, the levels of lipid peroxidation, oxidized glutathione, non-enzymatic antioxidants and the activities of mitochondrial enzymes were measured in liver and kidney mitochondria of young and aged rats before and after lipoic acid supplementation. In both liver and kidney increase in the levels of mitochondrial lipid peroxidation and oxidized glutathione and decrease in the levels of antioxidants and the activities of mitochondrial enzymes were observed in aged rats. DL-alpha-lipoic acid supplemented aged rats showed a decrease in the levels of lipid peroxidation and oxidized glutathione and increase in the levels of reduced glutathione, vitamins C and E and the activities of mitochondrial enzymes like isocitrate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, NADH-dehydrogenase and cytochrome-c-oxidase. Thus, lipoic acid reverses the age-associated decline in endogenous low molecular weight antioxidants and mitochondrial enzymes and, therefore, may lower the increased risk of oxidative damage that occurs during ageing. From our results it can be concluded that lipoic acid supplementation enhances the activities of mitochondrial enzymes and antioxidant status and thereby protects mitochondria from ageing.
PMID: 11672700 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
(R)-alpha-lipoic acid-supplemented old rats have improved mitochondrial function, decreased oxidative damage, and increased metabolic rate.
FASEB J 1999 Feb;13(2):411-8
Hagen TM, Ingersoll RT, Lykkesfeldt J, Liu J, Wehr CM, Vinarsky V, Bartholomew JC, Ames AB.
Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.
A diet supplemented with (R)-lipoic acid, a mitochondrial coenzyme, was fed to old rats to determine its efficacy in reversing the decline in metabolism seen with age. Young (3 to 5 months) and old (24 to 26 months) rats were fed an AIN-93M diet with or without (R)-lipoic acid (0.5% w/w) for 2 wk, killed, and their liver parenchymal cells were isolated. Hepatocytes from untreated old rats vs. young controls had significantly lower oxygen consumption (P<0. 03) and mitochondrial membrane potential. (R)-Lipoic acid supplementation reversed the age-related decline in O2 consumption and increased (P<0.03) mitochondrial membrane potential. Ambulatory activity, a measure of general metabolic activity, was almost threefold lower in untreated old rats vs. controls, but this decline was reversed (P<0.005) in old rats fed (R)-lipoic acid. The increase of oxidants with age, as measured by the fluorescence produced on oxidizing 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin, was significantly lowered in (R)-lipoic acid supplemented old rats (P<0.01). Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, an indicator of lipid peroxidation, were increased fivefold with age in cells from unsupplemented rats. Feeding rats the (R)-lipoic acid diet reduced MDA levels markedly (P<0.01). Both glutathione and ascorbic acid levels declined in hepatocytes with age, but their loss was completely reversed with (R)-lipoic acid supplementation. Thus, (R)-lipoic acid supplementation improves indices of metabolic activity as well as lowers oxidative stress and damage evident in aging.
PMID: 9973329 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
The potent free radical scavenger alpha-lipoic acid improves memory in aged mice: putative relationship to NMDA receptor deficits.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1993 Dec;46(4):799-805
Stoll S, Hartmann H, Cohen SA, Muller WE.
Central Institute for Mental Health, Department of Psychopharmacology, Mannheim, Germany.
alpha-Lipoic acid (alpha-LA) improved longer-term memory of aged female NMRI mice in the habituation in the open field test at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight for 15 days. In a separate experiment, no such effect could be found for young mice. alpha-LA alleviated age-related NMDA receptor deficits (Bmax) without changing muscarinic, benzodiazepine, and alpha 2-adrenergic receptor deficits in aged mice. The carbachol-stimulated accumulation of inositol monophosphates was not changed by the treatment with alpha-LA. These results give tentative support to the hypothesis that alpha-LA improves memory in aged mice, probably by a partial compensation of NMDA receptor deficits. Possible modes of action of alpha-LA based on its free radical scavenger properties are discussed in relation to the membrane hypothesis of aging.
PMID: 8309958 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
The effects of treatment with alpha-lipoic acid or evening primrose oil on vascular hemostatic and lipid risk factors, blood flow, and peripheral nerve conduction in the streptozotocin-diabetic rat.
Metabolism 2001 Aug;50(8):868-75
Ford I, Cotter MA, Cameron NE, Greaves M.
Departments of Medicine & Therapeutics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland.
Oxidative stress and defective fatty acid metabolism in diabetes may lead to impaired nerve perfusion and contribute to the development of peripheral neuropathy. We studied the effects of 2-week treatments with evening primrose oil (EPO; n = 16) or the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid (ALA; n = 16) on endoneurial blood flow, nerve conduction parameters, lipids, coagulation, and endothelial factors, in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Compared with their nondiabetic littermates, untreated diabetic rats had impaired sciatic motor and saphenous sensory nerve-conduction velocity (NCV; P <.001), reduced endoneurial blood flow (P <.001), and increased serum triglycerides (P <.01), cholesterol (P < 0.01), plasma factor VII (P <.0001), and von Willebrand factor (vWF; P <.0001). Plasma fibrinogen and serum high-density lipoprotein concentrations were not significantly different. Treatment with either ALA or EPO effectively corrected the deficits in NCV and endoneurial blood flow. ALA was associated with marked and statistically significant decreases in fibrinogen, factor VII, vWF, and triglycerides (P <.01, paired t tests before v after treatment). In contrast, EPO was associated with significant (P <.05) increases in fibrinogen, factor VII, vWF, triglycerides, and cholesterol and a significant decrease in high-density lipoprotein. Changes in levels of coagulation factors and lipids, qualitatively similar to those found with EPO, were obtained with a diet containing sunflower oil (to control for calorific and lipid content) or with a normal diet alone. Blood glucose and hematocrit levels were not significantly altered by treatments. These data suggest that although both ALA and EPO improve blood flow and nerve function, their actions on vascular factors differ. The marked effects of ALA in lowering lipid and hemostatic risk factors for cardiovascular disease indicate potential antithrombotic and antiatherosclerotic actions that could be of benefit in human diabetes and merit further study. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company
PMID: 11474472 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Decrease of elevated N,N-dimethylglycine and N-methylglycine in human immunodeficiency virus infection during short-term highly active antiretroviral therapy.
Metabolism 2001 Nov;50(11):1275-81
Look MP, Riezler R, Berthold HK, Stabler SP, Schliefer K, Allen RH, Sauerbruch T, Rockstroh JK.
Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
This study investigates fasting serum levels of methionine and related metabolites, vitamin B6, and folate during highly active antiretroviral therapy in therapy-naive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected outpatients. The research design consisted of before and during therapy measurements with a median treatment period of 100 days (range, 50 to 188) in frozen samples. The subjects included 17 consecutive HIV-1-infected outpatients (15 men and 2 women; 25 to 65-years-old). Controls were 42 healthy individuals (28 men and 14 women; 24- to 82-years-old) without serologic evidence of HIV and/or hepatitis C infection and normal clinical chemistry. Subjects received treatment with the reverse transcriptase inhibitors, azidothymidine (AZT) or stavudine (D4T) plus lamivudine (3TC) and either the protease inhibitors, indinavir (IND), nelfinavir (NELF), ritonavir (RITV), or saquinavir (SAQ) at the standard dosage. Serum concentrations of methionine, total homocysteine (tHcy), cystathionine (CYSTA), N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG), N-methylglycine (MG), methylmalonic acid (MMA), and total cysteine, as well as vitamin B6, folate, and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor p75 were taken at baseline and during highly active antiretroviral therapy. Baseline, serum tHcy, MMA, CYSTA, vitamin B6 concentrations were not significantly different from healthy controls. There was, however, a trend towards lower folate serum concentrations at baseline in HIV-infected patients as compared with healthy controls (P =.06). There were no significant correlations between tHcy and vitamin B6, folate, or MMA. Elevated baseline levels of DMG and MG decreased significantly during antiretroviral therapy (P =.0019 and.04, respectively), whereas no significant changes in serum concentrations of CYSTA, MMA, or methionine were detected. tHcy increased in 12 of 17 patients (P =.09). HIV-infected patients displayed significant alterations (elevated DMG and MG serum concentrations) in metabolite levels of the betaine pathway in methionine metabolism, which might be positively influenced by newly initiated antiretroviral combination therapy.Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company
PMID: 11699044 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Alpha-lipoic acid increases intracellular glutathione in a human T-lymphocyte Jurkat cell line.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995 Feb 6;207(1):258-64
Han D, Tritschler HJ, Packer L.
Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California at Berkeley 94720-3200.
The addition of exogenous alpha-lipoic acid to cellular medium causes a rapid increase of intracellular unbound thiols in Jurkat cells, a human T-lymphocyte cell line. The rise of cellular thiols is a result of the cellular uptake and reduction of lipoic acid to dihydrolipoic acid and a rise in intracellular glutathione. Although the level of dihydrolipoic acid is 100-fold lower than glutathione, the cellular concentration of dihydrolipoic acid might be responsible for the modulation of total cellular thiol levels. Rises in glutathione correlate with the levels of intracellular dihydrolipoic acid (p < .01). This increase in glutathione is not the result of expression of new proteins like gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase, since the rise in glutathione was not inhibited by cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor. Lipoic acid administration is therefore a potential therapeutic agent in an array of diseases with glutathione anomalies including HIV infection.
PMID: 7857274 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Vitamin E and alpha-lipoate: role in antioxidant recycling and activation of the NF-kappa B transcription factor.
Mol Aspects Med 1993;14(3):229-39
Packer L, Suzuki YJ.
Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley 94720.
Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) is believed to play an important role in the activation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Recent findings suggesting an involvement of reactive oxygen species in signal transduction pathways leading to NF-kappa B activation have encouraged the possible clinical use of antioxidants in blocking HIV activation. We have examined the effects of vitamin E and alpha-lipoate derivatives on NF-kappa B activation, and have observed that each of these antioxidants behave differently. Here we propose mechanisms of antioxidant actions in influencing cell signalling for NF-kappa B activation.
PMID: 8264337 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Alpha-lipoic acid is an effective inhibitor of human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV-1) replication.
Klin Wochenschr 1991 Oct 2;69(15):722-4
Baur A, Harrer T, Peukert M, Jahn G, Kalden JR, Fleckenstein B.
Institut fur Klinische und Molekulare Virologie der Universitat Erlangen-Nurnberg.
Alpha-lipoic acid, a naturally occurring disulfide-compound that acts as a cellular coenzyme, inhibits replication of HIV-1 in cultured lymphoid T-cells. Alpha-lipoic acid was added 16 hours after infection of the T-cell lines Jurkat, SupT1 and Molt-4 with HTLV IIIB and HIV-1 Wal (a wild type HIV-1 isolate). We observed a dose dependent inhibition of HIV-1-replication in CPE (Cytopathic effect) formation, reverse transcriptase activity and plaque formation on CD4-transformed HeLa-cells. An over 90% reduction of reverse transcriptase activity could be achieved with 70 micrograms alpha-lipoic acid/ml, a complete reduction of plaque-forming units at concentrations of greater than or equal to 35 micrograms alpha-lipoic acid/ml. An augmentation of the antiviral activity was seen by combination of zidovudine and low dose of alpha-lipoic acid (7 micrograms/ml). Trypan blue staining revealed no toxic effects of alpha-lipoic acids on peripheral blood mono-nuclear cells and T-cell lines even in concentrations of greater than or equal to 70 micrograms/ml. Therefore, we propose the inclusion of alpha-lipoic acid into chemotherapy trials in combination with zidovudine.
PMID: 1724477 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Studies on lipoate effects on blood redox state in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients.
Arzneimittelforschung 1993 Dec;43(12):1359-62
Fuchs J, Schofer H, Milbradt R, Freisleben HJ, Buhl R, Siems W, Grune T.
Department of Dermatology, University Hospital, Frankfurt/Main, Fed. Rep. of Germany.
Several investigators have implicated that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients have a compromised antioxidant defense system. Blood antioxidants are decreased and peroxidation products of lipids and proteins are increased in the patients. This may have pathophysiological implications, because antioxidants, such as glutathione, and reactive oxidants are involved in the regulation of the human immunodeficiency virus. Consequently it was suggested that HIV infected patients may benefit from antioxidant supplementation therapy. In a open and unblinded pilot study the short term effect of the natural antioxidant lipoate (Thioctacid) on blood antioxidants and peroxidation products was investigated in HIV positive patients (CDC IV). In the majority of the patients, lipoate increased plasma ascorbate (9 of 10 patients) total glutathione (7 of 7 patients), total plasma thiol groups (8 of 9 patients); T helper lymphocytes and T helper/suppressor cell ratio (6 of 10 patients), while the lipid peroxidation products malondialdehyde (8 of 9 patients) and 4-hydroxynonenal (7 of 9 patients) were decreased. The results of this pilot study indicate that lipoate supplementation changes the blood redox state of HIV infected patients. A prospective and longitudinal therapy study is warranted to investigate the long term effects of lipoate therapy on blood redox state, disease progression and incidence of opportunistic infections in HIV infected patients.
PMID: 8141828 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Alpha-Lipoic acid as a biological antioxidant.
Free Radic Biol Med 1995 Aug;19(2):227-50
Packer L, Witt EH, Tritschler HJ.
Department of Molecular & Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley 94720, USA.
Alpha-Lipoic acid, which plays an essential role in mitochondrial dehydrogenase reactions, has recently gained considerable attention as an antioxidant. Lipoate, or its reduced form, dihydrolipoate, reacts with reactive oxygen species such as superoxide radicals, hydroxyl radicals, hypochlorous acid, peroxyl radicals, and singlet oxygen. It also protects membranes by interacting with vitamin C and glutathione, which may in turn recycle vitamin E. In addition to its antioxidant activities, dihydrolipoate may exert prooxidant actions through reduction of iron. alpha-Lipoic acid administration has been shown to be beneficial in a number of oxidative stress models such as ischemia-reperfusion injury, diabetes (both alpha-lipoic acid and dihydrolipoic acid exhibit hydrophobic binding to proteins such as albumin, which can prevent glycation reactions), cataract formation, HIV activation, neurodegeneration, and radiation injury. Furthermore, lipoate can function as a redox regulator of proteins such as myoglobin, prolactin, thioredoxin and NF-kappa B transcription factor. We review the properties of lipoate in terms of (1) reactions with reactive oxygen species; (2) interactions with other antioxidants; (3) beneficial effects in oxidative stress models or clinical conditions.
PMID: 7649494 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]